NASA: Hole in Earth’s Ozone Layer is the Smallest It’s Been Since 1988

Holey Relief

In 1987, 197 countries signed the Montreal Protocol, an international agreement to stop releasing chemicals that were eating away a hole in our planet’s ozone layer. In a rare scientific triumph, the hole in the ozone layer has just about returned to the size it was at the time of the protocol’s signing: at its peak size in September, NASA reported that the hole was about 7.6 million square miles wide, the smallest it has been at peak since 1988.

Unfortunately, we may have solved one global problem with another, arguably bigger one. Warmer temperatures in the low pressure system that rotates above Antarctica, known as the Antarctic vortex, prevented many stratospheric clouds from forming; it’s within these clouds that the first steps that lead to ozone-destroying reactions occur. In other words, we could have global warming to thank.

“Weather conditions over Antarctica were a bit weaker and led to warmer temperatures, which slowed down ozone loss,” said Paul A. Newman, chief Earth scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, to the Washington Post. “It’s like hurricanes. Some years there are fewer hurricanes that come onshore…this is a year in which the weather conditions led to better ozone [formation].”

Video Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Kathryn Mersmann

The hole in the ozone layer was first clearly detected in 1984, by British Antarctic Survey scientists monitoring the atmosphere. After the team published their discovery in 1985, it spurred an international effort to reduce ozone-depleting compounds, specifically chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that were then commonly used as refrigerants. When the sun’s rays hit the chemically active forms of chlorine and bromine that come from these compounds, they produce reactions that destroy ozone.

Given that the ozone layer is primarily responsible for filtering out dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun, closing this hole — and preventing new ones from forming — is certainly good news. What’s more, the story of how we got here could be informative in addressing climate change as well.

International Cooperation is Fixing the Ozone Layer

Though climate contributed specifically to the reduction in ozone hole size we saw this year, the global reduction in atmospheric levels of CFCs following the Montreal Protocol has been the main reason that the hole in the ozone layer has continued shrinking.

Because CFCs hang around in the atmosphere for decades, scientists estimate that it will take until 2070 for the hole to return to the size it was in 1980. However, if this reduction hadn’t happened, NASA modelers estimate that by 2020 we would have seen 17% of global ozone destroyed, with holes above both the Arctic and Antarctic; by 2065, global ozone would have been almost entirely depleted.

Ian Rae, honorary professorial fellow at the University of Melbourne, wrote in The Conversation that while no single factor led to the Montreal Protocol’s success, the strong leadership and open discussion during negotiation enabled “a genuine exchange of views and the opportunity to take some issues on trust.”

Including scientists in the negotiations lent credibility to the discussion; and because the science wasn’t concrete at the time, the negotiators developed a highly flexible agreement that could be retooled as the science became clearer.

Durwood Zaelke, founder and president of the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development, told Motherboard that efforts to address climate change could learn from the Montreal Protocol by breaking it into “more manageable pieces, where you can focus on solving that one piece.”

Additionally, while climate agreements like the Montreal and Paris agreement are voluntary, trade sanctions that allowed signatories to trade only with other signatories — used as a last resort — were a big factor in getting other countries to sign up for the Montreal Protocol.

It’s true that CFCs were never as controversial as climate change, and that greenhouse gas emissions come from many more sources than the refrigerants we had to limit to save our planet’s ozone. Yet the levels of international cooperation that we saw are worth taking a lesson from — especially given the successes we see now.

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This is the smallest full-featured DJ controller on the market

Numark has just announced its newest piece of DJ hardware — the DJ2GO2 — and it’s the smallest full-featured DJ controller on the market. Designed to fit across a standard laptop, the DJ2GO2 is built to not take up any additional space during a performance or practice. To set it up, simply plug in your headphones and connect it with speakers through the master 1/8” output.

For how tiny the DJ2GO2 is, it packs a lot of crucial functionality in comparison to other smaller controllers, like the Hercules DJ Control Compact. The DJ2GO2 features a built-in sound card, two channels with pitch control, a master gain, headphone output, crossfader, 8 cue point buttons, and the ability to browse and load songs. It even has jog wheels, although it…

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These Satellites Are the Smallest to Ever Reach Earth’s Orbit

A Giant Leap for Chipkind

On June 23, Breakthrough Initiatives successfully sent six “Sprites” into orbit, marking an exciting milestone in the Breakthrough Starshot project — an initiative to send vast numbers of nanoships to Alpha Centauri, our nearest star system.

The miniature craft weigh just 4 grams each and are the smallest satellites ever sent into space. The test was designed to reveal how well the satellites’ electronics systems and radio communications performed in orbit.

Professor Avi Loeb, the chairman of the Breakthrough Starshot Advisory Committee, explained the significance of the event and the animus of Breakthrough Starshot to Universe Today in an email:

The launch of the Sprite satellites marks the first demonstration that miniaturized electronics on small chips can be launched without damage, survive the harsh environment of space and communicate successfully with Earth. The Starshot Initiative aims to launch similar chips attached to a lightweight sail that it being pushed by a laser beam to a fifth of the speed of light, so that its camera, communication and navigation devices (whose total weight is of order a gram) will reach the nearest planet outside the solar system within our generation.

Our Universal Adventure

The Breakthrough Starshot initiative is an ingenious solution to many of the problems associated with traditional space rovers. Those complicated machines can sometimes fail, their size and weight can impair propulsion, and a single craft that can only travel to one destination can require a huge financial investment.

Breakthrough Initiatives [INFOGRAPHIC]
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These tiny spacecraft should radically decrease the cost of interstellar exploration, while simultaneously increasing the speed at which we reach distant star systems. They’re also just one example of the many inventions that we are developing to investigate the cosmos.

Over the next few years, InSight will be launched to unearth the secrets beneath Mars’ surface, the James Webb Space Telescope will be sent into orbit so we can see the universe like we’ve never seen it before, and the Falcon Heavy will be tested, bringing us one step closer to setting foot on the Red Planet.

Thanks to all these fascinating new technologies, we are living in the golden age of space exploration. The mysteries of our universe are being decoded, space is being deciphered, and technology is giving us new tools in the hunt for extraterrestrial life. Truly, there has never been a more exciting time to study the starry void in which we float.

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