Infiniti's eye toward the future has manifested itself with the Xmotion (pronounced "Crossmotion;" it's a crossover SUV). The suicide-door clad ride boasts hand and eye motion and gesture sensors for the generous door-to-door digital dashboard, clima… Engadget RSS Feed
It’s been about nine months since a team of CERN researchers succeeded in their goal of measuring the spectrum of light emitted from hydrogen’s mirror particle, antihydrogen.
They were just getting started. Now the researchers have detailed evidence of the structure of antihydrogen using spectroscopy, setting a landmark in our quest to determine why there is something in the Universe rather than nothing.
Led by Canadian researchers under what’s called the ALPHA Collaboration, the first detailed observation of “home made” antihydrogen’s structure has shown its spectral lines are virtually identical to those of hydrogen.
Had they been even slightly different this would be quite a different story, one heralding a crack in our models on the Universe that could reveal why it looks the way it does.
One of the current big mysteries facing modern physics is the question of why everything seems to be made of one kind of matter, when there are two kinds.
For example, the negatively charged electron has a positively charged partner called a positron.
These particles form together as a pair. What’s more, if the opposing kinds of particles meet, they cancel out in a blaze of gamma radiation.
That leaves the question why there is so much of one kind of matter, and not just an empty Universe humming with radiation.
If there was some kind of imbalance in the apparent symmetry of the Universe, it would go a long way to explaining why we ended up with enough matter sticking around after the Big Bang to build a couple trillion galaxies.
Looking for a difference in the two kinds of matter is as good a place to start as any.
Step number one is getting enough antimatter in one place, which is no easy task.
The ALPHA Collaboration managed to do it by cranking up CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator and churning out about 90,000 antiprotons.
To make the element antihydrogen, they needed to couple each antiproton with a positron.
Even after making 1.6 million positrons, the researchers only managed to make about 25,000 antihydrogen atoms.
A relative handful of these were slow enough to be trapped inside a special force field that kept them from touching ‘normal’ matter and vanishing in a blink of light.
Theoretically as mirrors of the same element, hydrogen and antihydrogen should share this pattern.
Earlier research suggested this was true, but the detail wasn’t clear enough to be conclusive.
For the first time, researchers have found a way to capture fine details of antihydrogen’s spectral lines and show they are in fact identical to hydrogen.
Radiating the antihydrogen atoms with microwaves allowed the physicists to determine its light fingerprint in a rather indirect way, using specific changes in the antihydrogen that caused them to eject from the magnetic bottle to fine tune estimates on its spectral lines.
“Spectroscopy is a very important tool in all areas of physics. We are now entering a new era as we extend spectroscopy to antimatter,” says Jeffrey Hangst, spokesperson for the ALPHA experiment.
“With our unique techniques, we are now able to observe the detailed structure of antimatter atoms in hours rather than weeks, something we could not even imagine a few years ago.”
Right now, the comparison has shown the effectiveness of using spectroscopy rather than resulting in monumental new physics. But new tools like these are going to be important in studying antimatter in the future.
“By studying the properties of anti-atoms we hope to learn more about the Universe in which we live,” says Hayden.
“We can make antimatter in the lab, but it doesn’t seem to exist naturally except in miniscule quantities. Why is this? We simply don’t know. But perhaps antihydrogen can give us some clues.”
Delta is expanding its biometric check-in feature that allows some customers to use their fingerprints instead of a boarding pass. The service was first launched at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA) in May and let Delta SkyMiles members… Engadget RSS Feed
Customers flying Delta can now board using just their fingerprints at Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA) if they wish. The airline says the is available for customers who are members of Delta’s loyalty program SkyMiles, and who have enrolled in CLEAR — an expedited airport security program that costs $ 179 a year.
Delta started testing its biometric boarding procedure in May. The fingerprinting process allows customers to board an aircraft or enter Delta Sky Club lounges without their ID and ticket. Delta says the final phase of its biometric boarding pass test, which is due “this summer,” will allow customers to also use their fingerprints to check-in bags.
If there’s one thing that truly signposts the distance in interface development between phones and cars, it’s the reliance on buttons: phones are almost completely devoid of them, whereas cars seem to be abiding by a minimum quota of physical widgets, toggles, and doodads. But not the new Audi A8. This luxury sedan exhibits a deliberate hostility to buttons, opting instead for smooth black surfaces that transform into multifunctional touchscreens with realistic haptic feedback when the car is turned on. It’s a laudable and overdue minimalism in car design, but having spent the past 40 minutes inside the A8’s cabin, I can say it’s only a step in the right direction — one that shows we’re still closer to the beginning than the end of car…
Researchers at South Korea’s Kyung Hee University have developed a technique for creating microscopic, randomly-generated wrinkles on the surfaces of plastic particles. Each set of these wrinkles is entirely unique, and can be used to create security keys that are impervious to duplication. The process is also cheaper and easier than laser etching.
Wook Park, a member of the team who created the technique, told New Scientist that it would be almost impossible to clone security keys made with this method. This high level of security arises from the process itself, which involves coating the particles in silica, soaking them in ethanol, and drying them. The drying process causes wrinkles to form in the silica layer coating the treated particles, which is the source of the fingerprint-like pattern. The drying of the materials itself causes random patterns, but so do other factors such as the presence of dust or other foreign matter in the materials and minuscule temperature irregularities.
Higher Tech Security Measures
Especially when viewed up close, the plastic wrinkles bear a notable resemblance to human fingerprints — and the resemblance is more than superficial. These synthetic prints may one day be able to replace actual human fingerprints or identity cards because each set is completely unique, and can, therefore, be reliably used to verify a person’s identity. The “fingerprint” particles could also be attached to valuables for tracking or authentication.
Traditionally, measuring quantum states is a tedious affair. The technique used, called quantum tomography, requires measuring multiple copies of the quantum state in various ways, in order to count all possible outcomes and arrive at a full set of probabilities. Although important in testing quantum systems, this is not very practical. That’s why researchers from the Center for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore and the California Institute of Technology devised a much simpler method.
In a study published in the journal Nature Communications, the researchers proposed a measurement system that can pinpoint the fingerprint of any two-particle entangled quantum state. This device-independent way of certifying quantum states, among other things, “can bound specific quantities like the amount of randomness, the length of the secret key in quantum cryptography,” according to the study.
But first, a bit of a background: Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon where two particles are held in a multitude of undecided outcomes or possibilities. The change in one affects the change in another, regardless of distance. As such, entanglement is at the heart of quantum technologies like quantum computing and quantum cryptography — as well as the possibility of quantum teleportation.
For instance, quantum computing relies on entangled particles known as quantum bits (qubits). These qubits hold quantum states capable of being either a 0 or 1, in terms of carrying information. Building on existing findings regarding qubits, the team extended their work to higher-dimensional qubits known as qudits — capable of storing more information, not just 0s and 1s, but a 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on.
Securing Quantum Technologies
The general problem is determining whether quantum systems actually work and can deliver on the properties expected of them. “I like to see our work as bringing the power of testing quantum devices to the consumers who use them,” NUS researcher Goh Koon Tong explained to Phys.org. “Currently, only those who build the devices or understand the engineering aspect of them can perform the test.”
The team hopes that it would be possible for engineers and consumers of quantum technologies to perform such tests in the future. They encourage other researchers to develop ways to incorporate their device-independent checks that would allow for self-testing quantum technologies. According to researcher Valerio Scarani from NUS, there’s already interest. “Of all my work in the past five years, this has attracted the most attention,” he said.
This would allow engineers to spot errors in quantum technologies and devices that don’t perform what they promise to do. That’s especially crucial, since quantum computing is poised to be the future of information processing, which could improve the way we handle problems and conduct research in various fields. Likewise, quantum cryptography is also being promoted as the future of cybersecurity.